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Periodontal (Gum) disease is an infection of the tissues supporting and surrounding the teeth. It is mainly caused by the accumulation of bacteria from the dental plaque that inflames and damages the gums. This chronic infection attacks below the gum line where it breaks down the attachment of the tooth and its supporting tissues.
Regular dental check-ups and examinations are important because it is possible to have gum infections without the usual signs and symptoms. They may advance painlessly, exhibiting few evident signs even in the late phase of the disease. This explains the increased risk of losing one’s teeth.
Periodontal diseases are classified according to the severity of the infection and are traditionally divided into two stages: Gingivitis and Periodontitis.
Signs & Symptoms:
Gum disease can be painless, so it is important to be aware of any of the following symptoms:
Why and how periodontal disease caused?
It is caused by bacteria in dental plaque. Plaque is the sticky substance that forms on our teeth soon after brushing. In an effort to get rid of the bacteria, the cells of our immune system release substances that inflame and damage the gums, periodontal ligament or alveolar bone. This leads to swollen, bleeding gums, a sign of gingivitis (the earlier stage of periodontal disease). Damage from this can cause teeth to become loose. This is a sign of severe periodontitis (the advanced stage of disease).
Bacteria in your mouth can be aspirated into the lungs to cause respiratory disease such as pneumonia, especially in people with gum disease are almost twice as likely to suffer from coronary artery disease. Pregnant women who have periodontal disease may be seven times more likely to have a baby that is born too early and too small.
You may also have Gum disease if you have the followings: